We found that probiotics have multiple mechanisms of action in regulating blood glucose homeostasis. Probiotics are able to adjust the flora structure, promote GLP-1 secretion, reduce inflammation levels, regulate lipid metabolism, and some other mechanisms, including enhancing the mucus barrier, alleviating oxidative stress, elevating leptin levels and maintaining mitochondrial health to delay or block the progression of prediabetes to diabetes.

Probiotics can stimulate the enteroendocrine cells to secrete GLP-1.

Metabolites enhance satiety and inhibit eating.

Through bile acid (BA) receptors (Takeda G-protein-coupled receptor 5 [TGR5] and farnesoid X receptor [FXR]), short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) receptors (GPR41/43), Toll-like receptor (TLR) of intestinal cells, and enhanced Ca2+ entry, L cells can promote the release of intestinal hormones (glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1]/tyrosine tyrosine [PYY]), activate hypothalamus proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and inhibit neuropeptide Y (NPY) to improve satiety.

Meanwhile, BAs and SCFAs can cross the blood–brain barrier, and BAs enhance satiety through TGR5 receptors in the hypothalamus. SCFAs increase lactic acid and inhibit NPY. Otherwise, SCFAs promote the level of growth hormone, which can control energy homeostasis by stimulating lipolysis and protein retention.

The beneficial and negative metabolites produced by gut microbiota. The gut microbiota produces all kinds of beneficial or negative metabolites and directly affects the intestinal barrier and gut hormone (glucagon-like peptide 1 [GLP-1] and tyrosine tyrosine [PYY]) release. After entering circulation, those metabolites regulate satiety, insulin release, adipose tissue function, and systemic immunity, thus influencing obesity and energy metabolism.

We have carefully selected Beneficial bacteria that will produce beneficial metabolites that will not only produce GLP-1 but will also produce SCFA when combined with the Pectin also found in this formula and increase overall health and reduce hunger leading to weight loss. These bacteria have been studied to reduce hunger.

The probiotics included in this formulation convert excess sugars (glucose & fructose) into mannitol, a free radical scavenger that is naturally eliminated. By converting excess sugars into the prebiotic mannitol, which in humans is poorly absorbed by the intestines, making it possible to reduce the sugar intake from the food we eat, reducing the total calorie intake from your diet.

Mannitol may show anti-hyperglycemic potential with inhibition of intestinal glucose absorption and enhancement of muscle glucose uptake.

Gut microbiota-associated mechanisms involved in host appetite control. Firstly, gut microbial metabolites can stimulate enteroendocrine cells to release anorexigenic hormones (PYY, GLP-1, and CCK) and neurotransmitter (5-HT) and promote the secretion of peripheral hormones (leptin, ghrelin, and insulin). Secondly, Igs are involved in modulating the biological activity of appetite-regulating hormones, such as leptin and ghrelin. In addition, gut microbiota can produce identical protein sequences with appetite-regulating peptides, such as ClpB, that might directly act on anorexigenic neurons or bind to Igs to modulate the secretion of anorexigenic hormones from enteroendocrine L cells.

The included probiotics are shown to improve the epithelial integrity by rebalancing a dysbiotic state induced by an obesogenic diet, for example by increasing the prevalence of lean phenotype microbes such as Akkermansia muciniphila.

Research shows that the bacteria in this product has significant beneficial effects on weight management and metabolic health mediated by a complex signaling pathway network yet to be fully understood by current research.